The conclusion of COP28 brings with it a mixed bag of achievements and shortcomings in the fight against climate change. This year's conference, held in Dubai, was marked by a significant presence of fossil fuel lobbyists, with a staggering 2400 in attendance, a nearly fourfold increase from the previous year. This raised concerns about their influence on the proceedings and decisions made.
left: entrance to COP28, middle: plenary room at COP28 venue, right: meeting of a Climate Action Network Europe delegation
Despite this, the conference saw a strong push for the global phase-out of fossil fuels. The Climate Action Network (CAN) Europe's Director, Chiara Martinelli, pointed out that while there was a consensus to move away from fossil fuels, the response fell short in terms of fairness, clarity, and speed needed to address the climate emergency. The European Union (EU) played a pivotal role in advocating for fossil fuel phase-out, highlighting the need for solidarity and financial support for vulnerable regions.
A key focus of the conference was climate finance, particularly for climate mitigation, adaptation, and addressing loss and damage in vulnerable countries. Although the EU made several pledges, they were deemed insufficient compared to the scale of capitalization required. The conference also discussed the need for industrialized countries to take the lead in two major objectives: tripling renewable energy capacity and doubling energy efficiency levels by 2030.
However, many criticized multiple loopholes and fragments that leave too much space for interpretation, for example, a wide definition of "zero and low emission technologies" that should be accelerated.
Al Gore's commentary on the outcomes of COP28 in Dubai
The establishment of the Loss and Damage Fund was a positive step, yet the contributions from developed countries were seen as inadequate. The fund requires sustainable financing and equitable taxes to effectively support affected regions.
In conclusion, COP28 was a reflection of the ongoing struggle between progressive climate action and the vested interests of the fossil fuel industry. While there were advancements in terms of acknowledgments and objectives, much more needs to be done to ensure a fair and effective response to the climate crisis. The next COP will be crucial in setting concrete, actionable steps towards these goals, with an even larger focus on climate finance.